Learning Arangothek

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The Basics


Verbs are made up of two parts.

1. The first part, by itself, is equivalent to the verb "to be" =

  • ve = is, am, are.
  • in = was, were
  • di = will be
  • er = after having been
  • kor = before being
  • an = be! (imperative).

2. The second part is a participle

  • sul- = root, "to give"
    sulix = giving
    sulessa = being given
  • tentr-= root, "to watch"
    tentrix = watching
    tentressa = being watched
  • iss- = root, "to go"
    issix = going

The infinitive is formed by adding -ua.
Examples: sulua, to give; tentrua, to watch; issua, to go.

Combining these two expresses the different verb tenses and moods:

  • ve sulix = is giving; gives
  • in sulessa = was being given; was given
  • di tentrix = will be watching; will give
  • er tentressa = after having been watched; after being watched
  • an tentrix ai mek! = watch this!

The participles can also be used as adjectives:

  • Tentrix terbiloth = the men who are watching
  • Tentressa terbith = the man who is being watched

Basic Suffixes

The following are the most basic endings in Arangothian:

-oth, or after a vowel -th. = This is the definite article, corresponding to the English "the." Examples: arang, realm, land, territory; arangoth, the realm. Terbi, man; terbith, the man.

-oss = the same, if the noun itself ends in -th. Example: mintonth, a chair; mintonthoss, the chair. (instead of the nasty-sounding mintonthoth).

-el, or after a vowel -l, or in words ending in -i, -ial = Plural.
Examples: arang, realm, arangel, realms, arangeloth, the realms. Dreki, port, drekial, ports. Sembe, ear, sembel, ears.

There is also a set of pronominal endings to express "my," "your," "its," etc.

podar = house; bobire = guard

  • -(n)im = my. Podarim = my house; bobirenim = my guard
  • -(n)et = your. Podaret = your house; bobirenet = your guard.
  • -(n)ond = his/her/its. Podarond = his/her/its house; bobirenond = his/her/its guard
  • -(n)imil = our. Podarimil = our house; bobirenimil = our guard
  • -(n)etil = your (plural). Podaretil = your house; bobirenetil = your guard
  • -(n)ondil = their (plural). Podarondil = their house; bobirenondil = their guard.

NOTE: the plural ending comes before the pronominal ending:

  • podarel = houses; bobirel = guards.
  • podarelim = my houses; bobirelim = my guards
  • podarelet = your houses; bobirelet = your guards
  • podarelond = his/her/its houses; bobirelond = his/her/its guards
  • podarelimil = our houses; bobirelimil = our guards
  • podareletil = your (plural) houses; bobireletil = your (plural) guards
  • podarelondil = their houses; bobirelondil = their guards


Point of View Singular Plural
First Person min (I) melin (we)
Second Person ken (you) kalin ((you))
Third Person dan (he/she/it) delin (they)
  • mek = This.
  • melek = these.
  • ket = That.
  • kalit = those.
  • sin = which, who?
  • selin = which, who (plural)?
  • sinoth = which (relative pronoun)
  • selinoth = which (relative plural pronoun)
  • linmi = anything.
  • selin' = something.

Other Suffixes

Other suffixes that form words in Arangothek, but which it isn’t necessary to know to understand or write Arangothek, include:

  • -at, forms a tangible noun from a verb -- not abstract.
  • -axua, forms verbs from nouns ending in -at.
  • -(a)nth, forms the name of something used for some purpose.
  • -(i)re / -od, form terms for persons who do something as an occupation, etc.
  • -ovath, regularly forms an abstract noun from a verb.
  • -(a)lua is a default verbal ending.
  • -(o)lta = (1) diminutive of adjectives. hurn = red, hurnolta = reddish, etc.
  • -altua, forms verbs meaning to behave as or resemble something.
  • -k = forms various adjectives; e.g. gossa = king. gossak = royal.
  • -ia, -dossa = -ness/ -hood, forms abstract nouns.
  • -(n)air - forms collective nouns, e.g. alfri = tree, alfrinair = forest.
  • -(e)ti - forms adjectives meaning "made of something."
  • -etto, -ist. form nouns of various sorts.
  • -(i)gi. forms diminutives. dendre = girl. dendregi = little girl.
  • -(e)thrua. to make something some way. hurn = red. hurnethrua = to make red.
  • -st = forms a noun from an adjective. hurn = red. hurnist= the red one.
  • -onth = forms a noun that indicates a location where a verb takes place. mint-ua = to sit. mintonth = a chair (a place for sitting).


  • ne = to.
  • ne keletoth ul = to the face of; towards.
  • ul = of.
  • me = with, by means of, in a language.
  • sinme = together with
  • ai = No exact translation. This marks the direct object of a verb.
    Min ve tentrix ai ken. = I am watching you.
    Terbith in sulix ai dan ne ken = The man gave it to you.
    Delin kora tentrix ai min..... = Before they watched me....
    Ken ve tentrix ai dendreleth = You’re watching the girls.
  • ker = from. ker drekioth = from the port.
    Min in issix ker podaroth. = I went from the house.
  • olker = apart from, with the exception of.
  • ben = by, at. ben podaret = at your house. ben drekioth = at the port.
  • ben broxoth ul= at the front of, before.
  • ben ixoth ul = at the rear of, behind.
  • ben golatoth ul = at/on the bottom of
  • ben apatoth ul= at/on the top of
  • ben tinatoth ul = inside of etc.
  • ap = over. ap podarim ve appodaroth. = Over my house is the roof.
  • gol = under. gol podarim ve golpodaroth = Under my house is the cellar.
  • ta = for, on behalf of.
  • rem = through
  • reth(e)- = across.
  • tin = in
  • kei = on, upon.
  • nemu = without.
  • nemu nedondovath ta = despite, without regard to.


  • bed = 1
  • koith = 2
  • merra = 3
  • avot = 4
  • isik = 5
  • umpso = 6
  • tabba = 7
  • sibba = 8
  • pinquo = 9
  • serx = 10
  • serx-la-bed = 11
  • serx-la-koith = 12
  • serx-la-merra = 13
  • serx-la-avot = 14, etc.
  • koith-serx = 20
  • koith-serx-la-bed = 21
  • koith-serx-la-koith = 22, etc.
  • merra-serx = 30
  • avot-serx = 40
  • isik-serx = 50
  • umpso-serx = 60
  • tabba-serx = 70
  • sibba-serx = 80
  • pinquo-serx = 90
  • diggo = 100
  • sithdiggo = 1000
  • sithdiggo-pinquo-diggo-pinquo-serx-la-sibba = 1998

Note: after a numeral, a noun is in the singular.
Thus: bed dendre, koith dendre, merre dendre = one girl, two girl, three girl. NOT bed dendre, koith dendrel.

Regional variants: Some dialects pronounce x as /ks/, while others pronounce it as /ksh/ or /sh/. The pronunciation of v varies from /v/ to /w/. In West Arangoth, initial th- is pronounced as /s-/.

Other rules: Whenever i is followed by another vowel, the i is dropped, except in the ending -ia.

Some Common Phrases

  • me enxenim = "sincerely" at the close of a letter, literally "by my hand."
  • (Ai) van hest = Good day = Hello!
  • (Ai) van hest ne ken = Good day to you.
  • [Min] ve neskix ai van hest (ne ken) = [I] wish (you) a good day.
  • (Ai) van branth = Good bye, literally "[I wish you] a good way/path."
  • (Ai) van mink = Good night.
  • Ken ve sin? = Who are you (singular)?
  • Tesset ve sin? = What is your name?
  • Tessim ve .... = My name is.....
  • Ker sin umpi ken in ettix? = From whence do you come?
  • Min in ettix ker.... = I come from.....
  • Sin umpik ve ken? = Where are you from / Of where are you a native?
  • .......-ek ve min. = I am from ....
  • Arangothek ve min. = I am an Arangothian.
  • Kat Arangothek ve ken? = Are you an Arangothian?
  • Kat me Arangothek ken ve thratix flaralua? = Can you speak Arangothian?
  • Me Arangothek min (mu) ve thratix flaralua. = I can (not) speak Arangothian.
  • Min (mu) ve nethratix. = I (don’t) understand.
  • Ben sin umpi ve.....? = Where is....?
  • Kat ken darmix ai silek ul.....? = Do you have any.....?

Common Inn Phrases

  • Min ve tinissix tin brogoth. = I walk into the inn.
  • Min ve kessix ai ..... (ker Dulcina / brogodoth ) = I order ...... (from Dulcina / the barmaid).
  • Min ve mattix ben (me) ...... = I sit down by (with) .....
  • Min ve mattix ben hinxoth ul ..... = I sit down at ....’s table.
  • Min ve serpix ai ken! = I love you!
  • Kat ken ve neserpix me min? = Will you sleep with me?
  • Mu, min mu ve neserpix me ken. = No, I will not sleep with you.
  • An lebdix ai min, nimpestim! = Kiss me, my sweet!
  • An denissix, ken purpessa leski! = Go away, you damned rat!
  • Min an engix ai sartat ta ken. = Let me buy you a drink.
  • An ardix ai gasuggat, ken galgarod. = Get a life, you creep.
  • Ai emblovath an nesulix ne min, OR (a little less formal) An emblix ai min = Forgive me.
  • An emblix = Sorry! I beg your pardon. Excuse me.
  • An sonkix, ken gopsad! = Stop, thief!
  • Min di sangrix ai ken. = I am going to kill you.
  • Drekith = Drache
  • Arangoth = Arangoth
  • Arangothek = Arangothian (adj)
  • Brogoth ul Quar Daxkonoth = Blkdragon Inn
  • Asproth (Golgossath ul Arangoth) = The Raven (The Regent of Arangoth)
  • Ruthmarna (ruthmi arna) = Ruthmarna
  • Thresarnath = Sresar Vale
  • Silgimmoth ul Daran = The Darian River.
  • Nelkedossath ul Leptat = Song Deep.
  • Elgar Alfrinoth = Elgar Forest
  • Skettatoth ul Marfedeleth= Merchants’ Square
  • Nimmarna (Nimmak Nelkedossath) = Elvendeep
  • Kamhorna = Caern
  • Quar Hornath = the Castle Black.
  • Gossak Taloroth = the Royal Church.
  • Sith Odatoth = the Great Seal.
  • Korkovath. = thanks
  • Mu in limni. = You’re welcome. (Literally, “It was nothing.”)

Lesson One


  • ai = [direct object marker, untranslatable]
  • bobire = a guard
  • dan = he, she, it, him, her
  • ken = you (singular)
  • min = I, me
  • orgod = messenger
  • pallod = mage, sorceror, wizard
  • pengua = to want
  • pipua = to see
  • serpua = to love
  • terbi = man
  • tespin = lady
  • ve = is

The word "ve" means "is." So, for example, I can say:

min ve bobire = I am a guard.
ken ve pallod = You are a mage.
dan ve orgod = He/she is a messenger.

However, the word "ve" is also used to form verbs. In Arangothian, every verb has three different forms:

pip-ua = to see
pip-ix = seeing
pip-essa = seen

The second and third can be used together with "ve" as follows:

min ve pipix = I am seeing, I see
min ve pipessa = I am seen, I am being seen

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Ken ve pipix.
  2. Dan ve pipessa.
  3. Min ve pengix.
  4. Pallod ve pengessa.
  5. Ken ve serpessa.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. I love.
  2. A messenger is seen.
  3. You are wanted.
  4. She sees.
  5. He is loved.

To show the direct object of a verb, Arangothian uses the word "ai" before it. So, for example:

Min... ve pipix... ai ken.
I... see... you.

Pallod... ve pengix... ai orgod.
A mage... wants... a messenger.

The order of these words can be changed around without altering the meaning: for example--

Ai ken ve pipix min
Ai ken ve min pipix
Min ai ken ve pipix

...as long as "ai" comes right before the noun that receives the action.

Exercise Two

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Min ve serpix ai ken.
  2. Ken ve pipix ai pallod.
  3. Terbi ve pengix ai orgod.
  4. Dan ve serpix ai tespin.
  5. Ai terbi ve pipix bobire.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. I see a lady.
  2. A man wants a messenger.
  3. You want a mage.
  4. She loves a guard.
  5. He sees me.

Lesson Two


  • alfri = tree
  • arang = a land
  • brog = inn
  • dendre = girl
  • dixtis = sword
  • dreki = port
  • flin = beer
  • gessi = young
  • gord = bright
  • gossa = king
  • horna = castle
  • kam = old
  • marnu = bear
  • milla = much, many, very
  • mu = no, not
  • sarla = pretty
  • sartua = to drink
  • sith = big

There is no separate word in Arangothian for the word "the." Instead, Arangothian adds the ending -th or -oth to the noun. So, for example:

pallod = a mage; pallodoth = the mage
terbi = a man; terbith = the man
tespin = a lady; tespinoth = the lady
bobire = a guard; bobireth = the guard

Exercise One

Complete the following:

  1. an inn = brog; the inn = ?
  2. a bear = marnu; the bear = ?
  3. a king = gossa; the king = ?
  4. a land = arang; the land = ?
  5. a port = dreki; the port = ?
  6. a castle = horna; the castle = ?
  7. a sword = dixtis; the sword = ?

The plural of a noun is formed by the ending -l or -el. The ending -oth is added AFTER the plural ending when needed. So, for example:

pallod = mage. pallodel = mages. pallodeloth = the mages.
bobire = guard. bobirel = guards. bobireloth = the guards.
marnu = bear. marnul = bears. marnuloth = the bears.
gossa = king. gossal = kings. gossaloth = the kings.

EXCEPTION: when a noun ends in -i, its plural ends -ial, not -il.

terbi = man. terbial = men. terbialoth = the men.

Exercise Two

Complete the following:

  1. an inn = brog. inns = ? the inns = ?
  2. a lady = tespin. ladies = ? the ladies = ?
  3. a castle = horna. castles = ? the castles = ?
  4. a tree = alfri. trees = ? the trees = ?
  5. a girl = dendre. girls = ? the girls = ?
  6. a land = arang. lands = ? the lands = ?

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Min ve pipix ai gossath.
  2. Bobireleth ve pengix ai dendrel.
  3. Tespineleth ve serpix ai min.
  4. Terbialoth ve sartua ai flin.
  5. Ken ve pipix ai hornaloth.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. The guards see an inn.
  2. Guards love beer.
  3. A messenger sees the castles.
  4. The men want swords.
  5. The mage loves a lady.

Adjectives are used pretty much as in English. They do not take endings to match the nouns they modify, or anything like that.

Dixtisoth ve gord. = The sword is bright.
Min ve pipix ai sarla dendre. = I see a pretty girl.

The word for "no" or "not" in Arangothian is "mu":

Min ve bobire = I am a guard.
Min mu ve bobire = I am not a guard.
Min ve pipix ai ken = I see you.
Min mu ve pipix ai ken = I don't see you.

Exercise Three

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Gessi bobireleth ve sartix ai milla flin.
  2. Brogoth ve milla sith.
  3. Min ve serpix ai sarla dendre.
  4. Sarla dendreth mu ve serpix ai min.
  5. Orgodoth ve pengix ai gord dixtisel.
  6. Sith hornath ve milla kam.
  7. Ken ve milla sarla!
  8. Pallodoth ve pipix ai kam alfrial.
  9. Kam terbial ve pengix ai gessi dendrel.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. The trees are not very old.
  2. The young guard loves a pretty girl.
  3. The guards see a big inn.
  4. The swords are very bright.
  5. I see the land; I do not see the port.
  6. The mages want a lot of beer.
  7. You do not see the young men.
  8. The big castle is pretty.
  9. The king is not a bear.

Lesson Three


  • ben = at
  • brogetto = bar (of an inn)
  • daxk = dragon
  • delvi = swan
  • di = will be
  • Drekith = the city of Drache
  • ettua = to come
  • in = was
  • issua = to go
  • ker = from
  • Korth = Korthai (seafaring race)
  • la = and
  • me = with
  • ne = to
  • podar = house
  • rixteti = made of silver
  • quar = black
  • sulua = to give
  • ta = for
  • tin = inside of
  • tok = water
  • ul = of
  • van = good
  • vorfon = lord

Prepositions are used essentially as in English.

Min ve ben brogoth. = I am at the inn.
Min ve tin brogoth. = I am in the inn.
Ken ve issix ne brogoth. = You go to the inn.
Min ve ettix ker brogoth. = I come from the inn.
Flin ul brogoth ve milla van = The inn's beer is very good.
Flinoth ve ta ken. = The beer is for you.
Min ve me ken. = I am with you.

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Bobireloth ve issix ne sith hornath me gord dixtisel.
  2. Korth ve ettix ker Podar ul Rixteti Delvith.
  3. Milla sarla dendrel ve tin podaroth ul Dasmia.
  4. Van brog tin Drekith ve Brog ul Quar Daxkoth.
  5. Kam la gessi terbialoth la tespineloth ve ben brogettoth tin Brog ul Quar Daxkoth.
  6. Rixteti dixtis ve milla gord.
  7. Gossa Arlok ve sulix ai van dixtis ne vorfonoth.
  8. Molly ve sulix ai flinoth ne bobireth ben brogoth.
  9. Milla van pallodeloth ve tin Drekith.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. She comes from the castle to the old trees.
  2. The old mage wants a beer at the inn.
  3. The beer at the House of the Silver Swan is very good.
  4. The Korthai sees a pretty girl and goes to her.
  5. King Arlok in Hornath-ul-Marfed is not a good man.
  6. The Blkdragon Inn [Inn of the Black Dragon] is in Drache, and many pretty ladies are seen in it.
  7. Many good guards are with the king in the castle.
  8. The beer is for the man of the house.
  9. Castle Black [the Black Castle] in Drache is not very old.

As noted before, "ve" means "is." To indicate something that happened in the past, Arangothian uses the word "in" ("was"), and to indicate something that will happen in the future Arangothian uses the word "di" ("will be").

Min ve ben brogoth = I am at the inn.
Min in ben brogoth = I was at the inn.
Min di ben brogoth = I will be at the inn.

Min ve issix = I go.
Min in issix = I went.
Min di issix = I will go.

Exercise Two

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Dendreth in ettix ker hornath.
  2. Gossath di ettix ne Drekith.
  3. Ken in sulix ai dixtiseloth ne bobireloth.
  4. Molly di sulix ai tok, la mu flin, ne gessi tespinel.
  5. Quar daxkoth in gossath, la Arlok mu di gossath tin Drekith.
  6. Terbith in serpix ai dan.
  7. Sarla tespinoth in serpessa.
  8. Gord dixtisoth di sulessa ne ken.
  9. Min in ben brogoth la pipix ai pallod.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. The big dragon was in the castle.
  2. A pretty girl went to the inn.
  3. I will give you a beer [will give a beer to you].
  4. The king will not go to the guard's house.
  5. The king's castle in Hornath-ul-Marfed is very big and old.
  6. Castle Black was seen from the water.
  7. I did not see you with the messenger.
  8. A big black bear will come into Drache.
  9. Many swans are in the water at the port of Drache.

Lesson Four

First, a correction. I inadvertently used two dialect forms of words in lesson two: "bobireleth" and "tespineleth" instead of the proper literary Arangothian forms "bobireloth" and "tespineloth." Hopefully this will not have confused anyone very much. The pronunciations "bobireleth" etc. are common in Northern Arangoth, where the ending -eloth routinely becomes -eleth when added to a noun with a high vowel in its final syllable. This is not proper literary Arangothian and should not be emulated.


  • an = may it be!
  • danissua = leave, depart
  • gospin = queen
  • kat = [interrogative particle]
  • koi = but
  • lai = or
  • peska = lake
  • remma = door
  • stapua = to wait
  • tarpua = to bring
  • tespe = woman
  • tess = name
  • tinissua = to enter

Questions are formed in Arangothian simply by placing the word "kat" at the beginning of a sentence:

Ken in ben brogoth. = You were at the inn.
Kat ken in ben brogoth? = Were you at the inn?

Commands are formed using another word in place of ve/in/di, namely "an."

Ken ve issix. = You go.
An issix! = Go!
Min ve issix. = I go.
Min an issix. = Let me go! May I go!
Vorfonoth ve issix. = The lord goes.
Vorfonoth an issix! = May the lord go! Let the lord go!

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. An ettix!
  2. An sartix ai milla flin!
  3. Kat ken di sartix ai flin?
  4. Kat gospin Melinxa ve van tespe?
  5. Min an bobire!
  6. Min an serpessa!
  7. Min an sartix ai tok!
  8. Ken an gossath ul Arangoth!
  9. An van!
  10. Mu an danissix!
  11. Min mu an pipessa!
  12. Kat dan ve kam tespe?
  13. An tarpix ai flin ne min!
  14. Kat ken ve stapix ta min?
  15. Min ve serpix ai ken, koi ken ve serpix ai min?

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. Bring the king water!
  2. Come in [enter]!
  3. Will you be at the House of the Silver Swan?
  4. Did the guards wait in the castle for the lord, or did they leave?
  5. Does the girl love the mage or the guard?
  6. Will you drink water or beer?
  7. May I not see the women of Drache, but may I depart.
  8. Bring the Korthai (singular) beer, and let him drink it.
  9. May the pretty young girl love me, in the name of Menxvan!
  10. Are you the lord of the castle?
  11. Is the messenger waiting for me at the door?
  12. Was the lady's name Lixa, and was she from Lixonia?
  13. Are there many swans in the lake?
  14. Is the king of Arangoth a black dragon?
  15. Come to the castle, and bring a good sword with you.

Lesson Five


  • enxe = hand
  • etrua = to greet
  • hest = day
  • kessua = to request [ask for]
  • korkua = to thank
  • minx = night
  • nixke = beautiful
  • rinx = eye
  • sarma = warm
  • sippa = heart
  • tarlun = right, proper
  • tispat = food, (literally) bread

To make abstract nouns, Arangothian generally uses the ending -ovath. So, for example, you know the word SERPUA, meaning "to love." The noun "love" is therefore SERPOVATH. Other examples you will encounter in this lesson are:

  • etrovath = greeting (from ETRUA, to greet)
  • korkovath = thanks (from KORKUA, to thank)


In Arangothian, instead of having adjectives for "my," "your," "his," etc., there are separate endings added to nouns to express this.

  • -im = my
  • -et = your
  • -ond = his/her/its

podar = house.
podar-oth = the house.
podar-im = my house.
podar-et = your house.
podar-ond = his/her/its house.

If the noun is plural, these endings follow the same pattern as the -oth ending for "the":

podar-el = houses.
podar-el-oth = the houses.
podar-el-im = my houses.
podar-el-et = your houses.
podar-el-ond = his/her/its houses.

If the noun ends in a vowel, an N is added between the noun and the ending.

enxe = hand.
enxe-th = the hand.
enxe-n-im = my hand.
enxe-n-et = your hand.
enxe-n-ond = his/her/its hand.

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. gossanet
  2. gospinim
  3. arangelet
  4. tespelond
  5. dixtisim
  6. hornanet
  7. alfrialond
  8. delvialoth
  9. sippanond
  10. flinim

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. A girl, the girl, my girl, your girl, his girl
  2. A castle, the castle, my castle, your castle, her castle
  3. A lord, the lord, my lord, your lord, his lord
  4. Lands, the lands, my lands, your lands, her lands
  5. May your sword be in your hand.
  6. Is your house warm, and is there good food in it? Thank Menxvan.
  7. My king is the master of my sword, but my lady is the mistress of my heart. [master/mistress = vorfon]
  8. Give thanks to Menxvan, for He is very good. [The second half of the sentence would be translated: "taslepkar Dan er milla van." ...but this requires grammatical knowledge from later on.]

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Kat Arlok di gossanet, koi tin rinxelet kat dan mu ve tarlun gossath?
  2. Vorfonim, kat min an tarpix ai flin ta ken?*
  3. Min ve korkix ai ken ta sarma etrovathet.
  4. Kat toket ve van? Kat dendrenet ve nixke?
  5. Serpovath ul bobireth ve mu ta dixtisond, lai ta van flin la sarma brogel.
  6. Kat ken in kessix ai dixtiset?

Colloquial Expressions

  • ai van hest! = Good day! ["ai" shows that this is a direct object; the phrase is in fact short for "I wish you a good day."]
  • ai van hest ne ken! = Good day to you!
  • ai van mink! = Good night!
  • kat ken an tarpix ai.... = [to a waiter/waitress] I'll have.... (literally: would you bring me....) [kat + an = This is a special polite construction, combining the interrogative particle with the imperative. It might be translated most effectively as something like "would you...?" or "shall I...?"]
  • ben hest = during the day
  • ben mink = at night
  • kessix = please!
  • korkovath = thank you!

Lesson Six


  • branorgua = to send forth
  • dibe = cold
  • flis = hair
  • gint = enemy
  • gemarind = noble [n.]
  • kaxbranth = the North
  • lakra = city
  • lurintheti = golden
  • linmi = something
  • sangli = horse
  • sangrua = to kill
  • silaltat = council
  • silbranth = the South
  • Thresarna = Sresar Vale

Vocabulary building

In Arangothian, to state that something is "from" a particular place or is associated with something, we use the ending -k or -ek.

Drekithek = from Drache, Drachean
Arangothek = from Arangoth, Arangothian
gossak = royal [gossa = king]
tespek = female [tespe = woman]
gemarindek = noble [adjective]
lakrak = of the city, municipal.

Question Words

You have learned that "kat" at the beginning of a sentence asks a simply yes/no question. There are, however, some other question words that are used in Arangothian to ask particular kinds of questions:

  • sin = which? [as an adjective]
    Sin terbi ve orgodoth? = Which man is the messenger?
  • sinmi = what? [referring to one thing]
    Sinmi ve tesset? = What is your name?
  • selinmi = what? [referring to more than one thing]
    Selinmi ve tessel ul bobireloth? = What are the guards' names?
  • sinumpi = where? [what place?]
    Ben sinumpi ve min? = Where am I?
    Ker sinumpi in min ettix? = From where [whence] did I come?
    Ne sinumpi ve min issix? = To where [whither] am I going?
  • sinpir = when? [what time?]
    Sinpir ve? = What time is it?
    Ben sinpir min an danissix? = When should I leave?
  • sintha = who? [referring to one person]
    Sintha ve ken? = Who are you?
  • selintha = who? [referring to more than one person]
    Selintha ve terbiloth tin hornath? = Who are the men in the castle?
  • sinxa = how?
    Sinxa min ve issix ne Thresarnath ker Drekith? = How do I go to the Sresar Vale from Drache?
  • sindra = why?
    Sindra ken mu ve serpix ai min? = Why do you not love me?

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Sin horna ve tin Drekith?
  2. Ken ve serpix ai sin terbi?
  3. Gossath ve pengix ai sin sangli?
  4. Sintha ve arangothek gossath?
  5. Selintha ve vorfoneloth ul Gemarindek Silaltatoth?
  6. Ben sinpir in ken ettix ne Drekith ker Hornath-ul-Marfed?
  7. Sinmi ve tessoth ul brog tin Drekith?
  8. Selinmi ve tesseloth ul brogel tin Drekith?
  9. Sintha ve ken, la ken ve pengix ai sinmi?

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. Which beer is good, the beer at the inn or the beer in the castle?
  2. What is the name of the pretty girl at the bar, and who is she?
  3. Who were the men with swords?
  4. When do you want to leave for ["ne"] the Sresar Vale? [This also requires grammatical knowledge from later on: "want to leave" should be translated "pengix ai danissua."]
  5. Why doesn't the king drink beer with his noble guards?
  6. How do you want your food, warm or cold?

Other words follow similar patterns. This chart should be useful, and although it may be overwhelming at first, it's probably easier to learn it all as a pattern rather than in little bits here and there:

  • sin ...? [which...?] meke ... [this...] kete ... [that...]
  • sinmi? [which one?] mek [this one] ket [that one]
  • selinmi? [which ones?] melek [these] kalit [those]
  • sinumpi? [where] mekumpi [here] ketumpi [there]
  • sinpir? [when] mekpir [now] ketpir [then]
  • sintha? [who] -- dan [he/she/it] --
  • selintha? [who, plural] -- delin [they/them] --
  • sinxa? [how] minxa [this way, thus] ketsa [that way, thus]
  • sindra? [why] mindra [for this reason] ketra [for that reason]
  • lin ... [some ... or other, any]
  • linmi [something, anything]
  • lelinmi [some things or other]
  • linumpi [somewhere, anywhere]
  • linpir [sometime, any time]
  • lintha [someone, anyone]
  • lelintha [some ones, any ones]
  • linxa [somehow]

Exercise Two

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Meke dixtis ve milla gord.
  2. Kete horna mu ve milla sith.
  3. Mek ve milla gord dixtis.
  4. Ket ve nixke horna.
  5. Melek ve milla gord dixtisel.
  6. Kalit ve nixke hornal.
  7. Sintha in kete sarla tespe me lurintheti flis?
  8. Selintha ve meke terbial me gord dixtisel?
  9. Kat ben ketumpi ve lintha?
  10. Min ve ben mekumpi, koi ben sinumpi ve ken?
  11. Mekpir gossath ve ben ketumpi tin kaxbranth, koi mekumpi tin silbranth ve gemarindek silaltat.
  12. Linpir an ken issix ne Tagrana.
  13. Lintha ve serpix ai ken.
  14. Ketpir gossa Ware ul Arangoth in branorgix ai terbialond ne Ethkabar.
  15. Minxa milla terbial ul kam gossa Ware in sangressa tin tokel ul Nie, la Menxvan in danissix ker sippal ul Arangothekel.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. This beer is very good.
  2. That guard is very young.
  3. How did King Ware come to Drache? Is he not the enemy of the noble council here?
  4. The girls of this great [sith] city are very beautiful with their black hair and bright eyes. ["their black hair and bright eyes" should be translated: "quar flisondil la gord rinxelondil"]
  5. When was Tagran king of Arangoth?
  6. Somehow I want to see the women at Dasmia's, but I don't want anyone to see me there with them, and thus how will I see them? [This example is probably just too difficult. I would translate it as follows: "Linxa min ve pengix ai pipua ai tespeloth ben podar ul Dasmia, koi mu ve pengix ai kar linmi er pipix ai min ben ketumpi me delin, la minxa sinxa min di pipix ai delin."]
  7. When will you bring me my sword, and water for my horse? I am waiting.
  8. They came with black horses and bright swords. But who were they?
  9. Which ones are good, these or those?
  10. Thus the lord killed the messenger from the Assi with his sword.
  11. Is there a good woman for me anywhere in Drache?
  12. The water in the North is good, and for this reason many Arangothians go thither.

Lesson Seven


  • bedelta = only
  • brakakua = to prosper, flourish
  • deg = other
  • flarua = to say
  • gostalua = to govern
  • goxod = person [sentient being]
  • het = if
  • lermua = to dance
  • mulintha = nobody
  • nequorbua = to attack
  • sibontrua = to fight
  • simpua = to know
  • taslepkar = because
  • umpi = place
  • vard = friend

You have learned already the singular personal pronoouns. To refresh your memory, they are:

min = I
ken = you
dan = he/she/it
-im = my
-et = your
-ond = his/her/its

There are also plural forms for these pronouns, which otherwise follow all the same rules:

melin = we
kalin = you
delin = they
-imil = our
-etil = your
-ondil = their

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. enxenimil
  2. gossanetil
  3. dixtiselondil
  4. arangondil
  5. arangelond
  6. arangelondil
  7. lakranetil

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. our hearts
  2. their horses
  3. their house
  4. our castle
  5. your (pl.) lord
  6. your (pl.) guards
  7. our love for the king

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Melin in danissix ker lakrath ben mink.
  2. Kat ken ve pipix ai delin ben brogoth?
  3. Kortheloth di sangrix ai kalin.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. Now give your swords to them.
  2. Will you [plural] bring us good beer, or will we kill you?
  3. They go to the inn during the day, drink beer, and dance with the girls.

More Grammar

In addition to the words ve, in, di, and an, which you have learned so far, there are two more words that fall into the same category: ER and KOR.

Kor means "before being" and is generally used as follows:

Min kor pipix ai ken, mu in serpix ai lintha. = Before I saw you, I did not love anyone.

Ken kor danissix, kessix an sulix ai dixtiselimil ne melin. = Before you depart, please give us our swords.

Er means "after having been" and is used in several ways. The most basic is as follows:

Koi min er pipix ai ken, in serpix bedelta ai ken. = But after I had seen you, I loved only you.

Gossath er flarix minxa, an branorgix ai orgod ne gintoth. = After [i.e., when] the king says so, send forth a messenger to the enemy.

The general idea here is that KOR refers to something happening after the main clause, and ER refers to something happening before the main clause.

ER is also used in conjunction with the word "taslepkar" (because):

Taslepkar gossath er gessi, silaltat in gostalix tin umpinond.= Because the king was young, a council governed in his place.

If the relationship between the two parts of the sentence is not causal, then instead of "taslepkar" Arangothian uses the word "koi" (which you have learned as meaning "but"):

Koi gossath er gessi, dan in sibontrix ai gintelond. = Although the king was young, he fought his enemies.

Another word which uses ER is "nemukar" (unless):

Nemukar gossath er van, arangoth mu di brakakix. = Unless the king is good, the land will not prosper.

Finally, ER is used with the word "het" (if) to form conditional clauses:

Het tespe er nixke, min di issix ne dan ben brogoth. = If a woman is beautiful, I will go to [approach] her at the inn.

Het Arlok er gossa ul Arangoth, min ve rixteti daxk! = If Arlok is king of Arangoth, then I'm a silver dragon [i.e., a monkey's uncle].

Exercise Two

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Ken kor lermix me deg dendrel, an lermix me min.
  2. Ken er lermix me min, ken mu ve pengix ai deg dendreleth.
  3. Min kor issix ne Arangoth, mu in simpix ai linmi.
  4. Koi Drekith er milla sith lakrath, mu ve milla kam.
  5. Koi Lixa-da-Vixa er nixke tespe, mulintha ve serpix ai dan.
  6. Taslepkar tok er van ben kaxbranth, milla goxodel in issix ne ketumpi.
  7. Het ken er lermix me min, min di sulix ne ken ai van sangli.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. Before you kill me, give me bread and water.
  2. After you give me bread and water, I will not want anything else.
  3. Although King Arlok is a good young man, the people of Drache do not love him.
  4. If a man loves a woman, he will give his heart to her only.
  5. If you fight me thus, my friends will kill you before you depart.
  6. Because you are a good messenger, I will now send you to the king.
  7. Because they gave us their horses, we did not attack their castle.

Lesson Eight


  • ap = over, above
  • avot = four
  • bed = one
  • donnua = to hope
  • dretua = to write
  • ekro = happy
  • flar = tongue, language
  • gol = underneath
  • gorrathairalua = to build [a building]
  • hinx = table
  • kei = on
  • koith = two
  • mattua = to sit
  • menx = all, every one
  • merra = three
  • rath = stone
  • rem = through
  • ruk = bad, evil
  • sitharang = province, provincial government
  • sithire = governor
  • suggat = breath
  • thratua = to know [a language], to know how to do something
  • olglipua = to read
  • olker = except for


In Arangothian, any noun following a number is in the singular, not the plural. Thus:

sangli = a horse.
bed sangli = one horse.
koith sangli = two horses.
merra sangli = three horses.
sanglial = horses (no number specified).

Sinmi ve koith ket? = What are those two things?
Selinmi ve kalit? = What are those things?

In Arangothian, the word "kar" is a relative pronoun, translated as "that":

Min in flarix, kar min ve ekro. = I said that I was/am happy.

Min in flarix, kar min in ekro. = I said that I had been happy.

Min in flarix, kar min di ekro. = I said that I would be happy.

(Note that the verb tense in the relative clause is interpreted with regard to the tense of the main clause.)

The relative pronoun in Arangothian is SINOTH:

Min in pipix ai dendreth, sinoth ben brogettoth in mattix. = I saw the girl, who was sitting at the bar.

Ken ve goxod, ne sinoth min ve sulix ai dixtisim. = You are the person, to whom I am giving my sword.

Exercise One

Translate from Arangothian:

Flaressa ve, kar Drekith kor lakra, sith lakrath tin Arangoth in Tagrana. Ket in sith, nixke lakra, ker sinoth kam gossaloth in goxalix ai arangelondil. Koi ben mekpir ve Drekith milla sith lakra. Ben mekumpi goxalix ve Silaltat, ben sinoth ve milla van gemarindel ul lakrath la ul arangelond. Ben meke drekinondil ve milla goxodel, sinoth in ettix ker deg arangel ne meke van lakranimil. Selintha ve ben mekpir tin Drekith? Min mu ve simpix ai menx, koi lelintha ul delin ve Mingiteloth la Lixoniakeloth la Leturakeloth, sinoth mu ve thratix ai arangothek flar. Ap lakrath ve horna, Quar Hornath, ai sinoth in gorrathairalix gospin Alysia la gossanond Quar-Daxk. Quar-Daxk in van gossath, la tessond ve tin tessoth ul sith brogoth ben mekpir tin Drekith: Quardaxkek Brogoth, lai Brogoth ul Quar Daxkoth. Gospin Alysia in gorrathairalix ai meke umpi, la dan in sulix ne mek ai meke tess, gossak tess ul serpessa quar daxkond.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. I knew that the king was not happy, because his queen had departed for the old city of Tagrana.
  2. Although I went through all the Sresar Vale on a horse, I did not see anything there except trees.
  3. The young guard sat at his table in the inn and drank four beers.
  4. At night the breath of great dragons is bright.
  5. The lord said that his castle would be built with many big stones.
  6. Bring me two horses before my friends see that I am here.
  7. "Send forth three messengers," said the king.
  8. He knows that somewhere in Drache a girl with golden hair is waiting for him.

We have not yet had much occasion to use the infinitive form of the verb, e.g. "issua," to go. However, it is found in expressions such as the following:

Min ve pengix ai issua ne Drekith. = I want to go to Drache.

Kat ken ve thratix ai lermua? = Do you know how to dance?

Note that "issua" and "lermua" are used here grammatically as direct objects, and therefore they take the word "ai" before them.

If the subject of the second verb is different from that of the main verb, then a different construction is used. Instead of the infinitive, we find a clause with "kar."

Gossath ve pengix ai kar orgodond an danissix. = The king wants his messenger to depart.

Min ve pengix ai kar ken an issix ne Drekith. = I want you to go to Drache.

Note that AN is used here, since the concepts "depart" and "go" are understood as being imperatives.

Exercise Two

Translate from Arangothian:

  1. Gospinoth ve pengix ai danissua ben mekpir ne Tagrana.
  2. Gossath mu ve pengix ai kar gospinond an danissix ne Tagrana.
  3. Min ve gessi, koi thratix ai sibontrua.
  4. Dendreth in pengix ai lermua, koi mu in thratix.
  5. Dan ve donnix ai kar terbith, sinoth ve kei quar sanglith, an pipix ai dan.

Translate into Arangothian:

  1. The guards of the city do not know how to dance.
  2. Those girls at the House of the Silver Swan know how to love a man!
  3. That man knows how to write, but nobody wants to read those evil things that he has written.
  4. It is said that the breath of a dragon is very warm.
  5. The king hopes that the people in Drache will write something to him.

Het ken er thratix ai olglipua ai mek, tin tessoth ul Menxvan ken ve milla van me arangothek flar. Kessix an dretix ne min, la gossa Arlok di sulix ne ken* ai arangothek sitharang: ken di Sithire... lai het deg goxod er ben ketpir Sithire, ken di van deg linmi, sith gossak vorfon! Min ve donnix ai kar ben linpir lintha an olglipix ai menx mek, koi min mu ve simpix, kar lintha di.... -- Deg-Pat

  • lai ne "characteret," het ken er "mun"... ;)

Lesson Nine

This will be the last installment until someone has actually finished all nine lessons, and will just cover a few loose ends, without additional vocabulary or exercises.


We have not really done much with adverbs yet. The adverbs you already know from previous lessons are:

  • sinxa = how?
  • minxa = thus, in this way
  • ketsa = thus, in that way

The basic adverbial ending in Arangothian is -xa.

  • van = good. vanxa = well.
  • ekro = happy. ekroxa = happily.
  • nixke = beautiful. nixkexa = beautifully.
  • flaressa = said.* flaressaxa = reportedly.
  • serpix = loving. serpixa = lovingly.
  • ruk = bad ruxa = badly.
  • gemarindek = noble. gemarindexa = nobly.
  • milla = many / very millaxa = a great deal, very much.

NOTE: If this was not clear before, the participles "pipix" and "pipessa," etc., can be used as adjectives (seeing, seen): pipix terbith = the seeing man, the man who sees pipessa terbith = the seen man, the man who is seen.

But if the word to which -xa is added ends in certain sounds, the ending changes to -sa.

  • gord = bright. gordsa = brightly.
  • flenth = delicate. flenthsa = delicately.
  • kam = old. kamsa = "as in olden times."
  • prath = rough. prathsa = roughly. etc.

Comparative and Superlative Degrees of Adverbs and Adjectives, etc.

We have seen that the word "milla" is used to mean "very."

  • milla sith horna = "a very great castle"
  • milla sith hornath = "the very great castle"
  • Ken ve flaralix milla vanxa. = "You speak very well."

The comparative degree is shown by adding the prefix ga- to an adjective or adverb. "Than" is expressed with the preposition "ker."

  • van = good. vanxa = well.
  • gavan = better (adj.) gavanxa = better (adv.)
  • ekro = happy. gahekro = happier. [an H is added before adjectives beginning with a vowel.]

Mek ve gavan ker ket. = This is better than that. Ken ve flaralix gavanxa ker min. = You speak better than I do.

The superlative degree is shown by the addition of the phrase "ker menx," which might be translated as "of all."

Mek ve gavan ker menx. = This is the best [of all]. Ken ve flaralix gavanxa ker menx. = You speak the best [of all].

Another useful expression is the equivalent of "too" much; this is expressed by the word "ap":

Meke hest ve ap sarma. = This day is too warm.

Similarly, "gol" conveys the concept of "not enough."

Meke hest ve gol sarma. = This day is not warm enough.

"As ... as ..." is expressed in Arangothian by the word "har":

  • sinim har kam marnu = clever as an old bear
  • sarla har delvi = pretty as a swan
  • valk har gessixa tontressa valkatoth = white as the new-fallen snow

Other Useful Expressions

"There is..." is translated simply "Ve...," or an equivalent word.

  • Ve alfri ben podarim. = There is a tree by my house.
  • In flin ben brogoth. = There was beer at the inn.
  • Kat di lin sanglial ben ketumpi? = Will there be any horses there?

"Here is...," in the sense of introducing something or someone, is translated by the expression "Pip' ve..." (shortened from "An pipix kar ve...," i.e. "Behold that there is...").

  • Pip' ve flin ta ken! = Here's beer for you.
  • Pip' ve orgod, ai sinoth ken in kessix. = Here's the messenger you asked for.

In closing a letter, the most common expression is "me enxenim," by my hand.

In addressing someone, one often precedes a name with the word "na":

  • Na vorfonim = O my lord
  • Na Kenglith = Hey, Kenglith!

In response to a question, one might answer:

  • Ve. = "yes."
  • Mu ve. = "no."

Some parts of speech are dropped in cases when they are not needed for clarity. So, for example, it is not uncommon to hear (or even read) such expressions as:

  • Min issix. (for: Min ve issix.)
  • Dan mu ben mekumpi. (for: Dan mu ve ben mekumpi.)
  • Min, sinoth gemarind... (for: Min, sinoth ve gemarind...)

This is not considered "sloppy," but is sometimes even emulated by distinguished writers in the attempt to streamline prose and poetry. However, it is not recommended that a beginner at Arangothian attempt this, as it can easily lead to misunderstanding and ambiguity.

Some common words are frequently shortened in speech and sometimes in writing. The question-word "kat" is often elided to "k'":

K' ken di sartix? = Will you drink?

The phrases "ben mekumpi" and "ben mekpir" are commonly elided to become "b' mekumpi" and "b' mekpir." One also finds the expressions "b' sinumpi," "b' ketpir," and even "b' brogoth," "b' podarim," etc.

The preposition "ben" is used in many additional expressions, such as:

  • ben broxoth ul = at the front of, before
  • ben ixoth ul = at the rear of, behind
  • ben golatoth ul = at the bottom of
  • ben apatoth ul = at the top of
  • ben tinatoth ul = on the inside of
  • ben podar = at home
  • ben flun = in the morning, etc.

Some idioms in Arangothian are:

  • tin rinxelim = in my opinion (literally, in my eyes)
  • dekrua ai dixtisel me = deal with (literally, touch swords with)
  • galgar ker tixelond = hung over (literally, sick from his/her cups)

"In order to..." is expressed in Arangothian by "ta" plus the infinitive of the verb:

An ensix ai dixtiset ta sangrua ai dan. = Take your sword in order to kill him.

Affectations of Elevated Speech

The Arangothian you have been learning is standard literary Arangothian, such as might be used in official reports of various kinds, in news broadsides, and so forth. When people wish to make themselves sound more refined in their speech or writing, they use a number of affectations which it will be useful to know. HOWEVER, YOU CAN SAFELY IGNORE THE FOLLOWING SECTION FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES. It is only of interest to those who might be curious about the artistic literary use of the language.

One of these is a poetic archaism in which the possessive suffixes are added not only to nouns but also to prepositions and to the word "ai."

Compare the following:

  • Standard Arangothian: Min ve pipix ai ken.
  • Elevated Arangothian: Min ve pipix ainet.
  • Standard Arangothian: Min ve sulix ai flin ne dan.
  • Elevated Arangothian: Min ve sulix nenond ai flin.
  • Standard Arangothian: Kat ve dretessast ker dan ta min?
  • Elevated Arangothian: Kat ve dretessast kerond tanim? (dretessast = letter)

It is not advised that the beginner at Arangothian use this construction, but you may occasionally find it used in formal writing.

In royal letters, the King typically writes using the "royal we," in the first person plural. It is considered proper to address letters to one's superiors using the second person plural.

  • Melin, sinoth gossa, ve dretix kar... = We who are King write that...
  • me enxenimil = "by our hand" instead of the usual "me enxenim"
  • Na sith vorfonim, min ve dretix ne kalin kar.... =
  • O my great lord, I write unto you that....

Another feature of elevated prose is the running together of certain words. The words "ve," "in," "di," "er," "kor," and "an" are merged with the words preceding them. The use of "an" at the beginning of a phrase, common in the standard language, is avoided in elevated writing.

  • Minve arangothek gemarind. (for: Min ve...)
  • Kat kenin arangothek gemarind? (for: Kat ken in...)
  • Gossathdi danissix. (for: Gossath di danissix...)
  • Kenkor danissix. (for: Ken kor danissix...)
  • Ettixan. (for: An ettix...), etc.

Prepositions such as "ne," "ker," "ta," are merged with the words following them, as is the word "ai."

  • Minve dretix nevorfonim. (for: Min ve dretix ne vorfonim.)
  • dretessast kergossath (for: dretessast ker gossath.)
  • Meke dixtisve tagospinim (for: meke dixtis ve ta gospinim.)
  • Gossathve sulix aisangli (for: gossath ve sulix ai sangli.)

This can be very difficult to decipher for one not accustomed to it, but there is a belief among the Arangothian literary elite that short two-letter words are not pleasing to the eye.

  • Standard Arangothian: An ensix ai dixtiset ta sangrua ai dan. =
  • Elevated Arangothian: Enxisan aidixtiset tasangrua ainond.

Finally, participles are used more widely than in standard Arangothian; for example:

me dixtis sangressa terbith (for: terbith, sinoth in sangressa me dixtis), i.e. "the with-a-sword-killed man," the man who was killed with a sword.

Rules for the Definitive Suffix

Generally speaking, the definitive suffix (-th or -oth) appears only once at the end of a noun phrase. So, for example:

  • podar ul terbith = the house of the man
    NOT podaroth ul terbith
    BUT podaroth ul terbi = the house of a man

When a definitive form of a noun has become a proper noun (such as Drekith or Arangoth) then we often find a definitive suffix on nouns preceding it in a noun phrase:

  • lakrath ul Drekith = the city of Drache
  • gossath ul Arangoth = the king of Arangoth


  • lakra ul drekith = the city of the port
  • gossa ul arangoth = the king of the land

Forming New Words

Two nouns can be combined in either of these ways:

Y-X e.g. brogremma X-ul-Y e.g. remma-ul-brog [both mean "inn-door"]

Verbs can be combined with nouns as follows:

  • gakendua = to hunt
    senke = a knife
    =gakendusenke = a hunting-knife
  • tispua = to bake
    sarmat = a fireplace
    =tispusarmat = a fireplace for baking things at
  • branissua = to travel
    erpe = a cake
    =branisserpe = a cake for traveling (hardtack?)

The following endings are also still "active" and may be used to coin new words.

  • -ovath = forms abstract nouns from verbs
    serpua = to love
    =serpovath = love (n.)
  • -adossa = forms abstract nouns from adjectives
    bralk = high
    =bralkadossa = height
  • -ire = forms nouns describing occupations and so forth. (Sometimes the ending -od is found instead, e.g. orgod, pallod, sangliod, etc. -- but NEW words are formed with -ire.)
    bobua = to guard
    bobire = a guard
    blan = a garden
    blanire = a gardener
  • -alua = ending used for forming new verbs
    dixer = music
    dixeralua = to play music
  • -gi = diminutive ending
    dendre = girl
    dendregi = little girl
  • -ethrua = ending used for verbs meaning to alter something
    hurn = red
    hurnethrua = to make something red
  • -eti = adjective ending describing what something is made of
    lambor = skin, leather
    lamboreti = made of leather
    lurinth = gold (noun)
    lurintheti = golden, made of gold
  • -altua = verbal ending meaning to behave like something
    pex = dog
    pexaltua = to behave like a dog, act like a dog
  • -olta = adjective ending indicating resemblance
    pexolta = doglike, like a dog
  • -air = forms collective nouns
    alfri = tree
    alfrinair = forest
    bobire = guard
    bobirair = group of guards
  • -ebdua = verbal ending indicating that something is becoming some way
    hurn = red
    hurnebdua = to become red