Nahuatl

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Nahuatl
Country Information
Capital: Anaxcalpa
Language: Nahuatli
Ethnic Groups: Humans (95%), Gnomes (2%), Reptilian humanoids (2%), Other (1%)
Religion: Polytheistic, chief deity is Huitzlcaelel
Government: Monarchy
Current Ruler: Tlahtoani Amoxtli IV


The land referred to as "Nahuatl" is known by many names. In Elven lore, it is known as Sinduil Alassesse, or "Land of a Thousand Jungles". In the tongue of the Orcs, it is known as the "Savage Land". The Alesian explorer Etaudus 'the Green' Sceptimo referred to it as the "Heart of Darkness" in his travel journals. The natives call their land simply "Nahuatl", which translates to, roughly, "domain of the blessed".

Nahuatl is a land of jungles and deserts, located far to the northwest of Arangoth on the Inland Sea, bordering Marilsan, Varstad and The Tyhinn Empire. It is a place where great cities rise out of the most inhospitable mountains and thick jungle. It is a nation of great, eternal traditions, where failure to obey the will of the gods is to invite the end of the world itself. It is a constantly in flux, where loyalty shifts and flows with a plan seemingly understood only by the gods themselves. It is a land of both utter barbarity and high civilization. Under the rule of their priest-king Amoxtli IV, the Nahuatl people have begun to make contact with the world outside their borders once more.

History

According to the Nipangui scholar Godaigo Sobasuke, modern Nahuatli civilization emerged in the Arangothian year 1723 BT, following a prolonged struggle between the people of the Nahualpan river basin and the mountain and jungle dwelling tribes. The Nahualpans, under the leadership of a mysterious king known as the 'Teal Sky Serpent' forced the submission of their rivals. To show their power, they built an island in the large central lake and then erected a great city, which came to be known as Anaxacalpa. The Nahuatli, however, claim that their society has not only always existed, but in ages past spread all across the continent that the outsiders refer to as 'Veth'. Their society, they say, experienced a series of cataclysmic disasters and was forced to contract to the natural borders it currently occupies. Whatever the truth of the matter, archaeologists and budding adventurers alike have found mysterious ruins within the jungles and mountains that far pre-date Godaigo Sobasuke's research.

Nahuatli history is defined by a series of civil wars and chaos. Perhaps according to some great unwritten plan of the Gods, hardly a decade goes by in which at least one of the cities within Nahuatl attempts to challenge the Tlahtoani, often leading to short but high-intensity wars, known colorfully as "the flower wars". Some outside observers of Nahuatli affairs suggest instead that these "flower wars" are in fact instigated by the Tlahtoani in order to secure his political power and maintain the traditions of human sacrifice that the culture's harsh religion demands.

Geographical Features

Nahuatl itself is comprised of fifty-four walled cities and countless smaller villages and hamlets. The largest city, with a population of roughly 120,000 inhabitants, is Anaxacalpa, the capital city. The smallest cities hold roughly 10,000 inhabitants. While these are all under the sovereignty of the Tlahtoani, local authorities hold an enormous amount of power. Each city is its own little state, with its own local laws, customs, ability to collect revenues, and maintain a military force. Despite this autonomy, however, the cities of Nahuatl share a common culture.

Nahuatl is divided physically into five regions: Haxacapa, Tetucihua, Yucacaltica, Tetucinapala, and the capital district, Anaxacalpa.

Haxacapa borders the river Hatuapala, and is a desert region. The province's name translates as "the hundred mesas" - unsurprisingly, the region is home to many large mesa plateaus. Many of these mesas are used by shamans(due to the symbolic nature of earth reaching into sky) and warlocks(due to the practical nature of being far away from cities). Vegetation is sparse, though animal life is surprisingly abundant - such creatures as bighorn sheep, coyote, deer, antelope, mountain lions, scorpions, tarantulas, bobcats, skunks, roadrunners, and jackrabbits can be found in the Haxacapa region. In some cases, the unholy energy used by Nahuatl warlocks has caused the more predatory of these creatures to be given a fiendish hunger and cunning. The capital city of Haxacapa is called Miec Calli. The city is situated on a plain surrounded by a ring of volcanic ash.

Tetucihua is the province furthest west, and is the homeland of the Twalec race. It is primarily jungle. A great river extends westward through it, far beyond the reaches of the province. Some Nahuatl explorers have attempted to send parties down river to explore, but none have returned. The capital city is called Kash'jin.

Yucacaltica is the southern province of Nahuatl, comprised of mountainous jungles and the coastline. The mountaintops host a number of large cities, and a network of roads extends throughout the region, from city to city. Many Tutecs make their home on the upper levels of the mountain-cities, with the Humec majority scrabbling at the lower parts of the mountainsides. The capital city is called Aacchu Kaachu, a name which visiting foreigners find endlessly amusing.

Tetucinapala is the northern province of the Nahuatl state, and is a tropical rainforest. It is the least inhabited of the provinces, and there are tales of many terrifying jungle creatures that lurk in the north. The capital city, Hulicajala, tends to attract warlocks and other unsavory characters looking for a place to practice their beliefs without scrutiny.

Anaxacalpa is the capital city, built on Lake Anaxis.

Government and Politics

Nahuatl society is organized as a feudal society. The Tlahtoani, or priest-king, reigns as supreme authority. The position is not entirely a hereditary one; often Tlahtoani leave no children behind. When this happens, the teopixqui, or priests, anoint a successor based on the signs and portents given by the dawn. The religious significance of the Tlahtoani's position is reinforced through the rituals of submission to him called for by Nahuatl religious law. For example, part of the Nahuatl coronation tradition dictates that all of the generals gather together in the high temple of the god Huitzlcaelel, wound themselves, and mingle their blood together in a chalice. The Tlahtoani signifies his authority over them by imbibing the blood, and the generals swear their undying allegiance to their lord.

The Nahuatl legal system is not much of a "system". For crimes involving two Humecs, the village or city court appoints a magistrate to hear the case. These magistrates are often Tutecs – while some behave in a paternalistic manner toward the Humecs and attempt to impart justice, most resolve the case via prejudice or by receiving bribes. In the case of an accusation by a Tutec against a Humec, the court appoints a magistrate with the power to hear testimony. Physical evidence is not allowed, as it could be easily forged. Testimony is heard, with the social rank of the witness as the main source of validity. Almost invariably, the accused Humec stands little chance of clearing his name. Accusations by a Tutec against another Tutec are resolved by special magistrates from the High House of the Serpent. Criminal sentences are pulled from the ancient Law of Retribution: murder is punishable by death, maiming, stealing, and assault is punishable by maiming, slander is punishable by cutting out the tongue, adultery or rape is punishable by blinding, and so forth. The Law of Retribution was amended in the Arangothian year 300 by the Tlahtoani Eztli XVII, who instituted a policy whereby Tutecs convicted of a non-capital crime are allowed to pay a substantial fine to the imperial coffers in order to buy a Humec substitute to suffer the physical punishment.

Military

Nahuatl has no unified army to speak of. Each individual city boasts its own force, and most of the High Houses have their own fighting corps. However, the Tlahtoani is a supreme war-chief, and when he wishes to go to war, he conducts an imperial levy. Levies are typically not generalized – the Tlahtoani will call upon specific cities or High Houses to furnish him with troops. Throughout history, some clever Tlahtoani have responded to particular rivals within the nobility by ordering them to furnish a levy, thus weakening their position. The most famous practitioner of this strategy was Ilhuitl II, who reigned from the Arangothian years 222-270, a reign of impressive length by Nahuatl standards. The crafty Ilhuitl is known variously in Nahuatl histories as "Ilhuitl the World-Conqueror," "Ilhuitl the Stone Bull," or (in less popular portrayals) "Ilhuitl the Spider-King".

While each Tlahtoani is free to organize his levies in whatever manner he sees fit, custom over the centuries has led to a common practice, believed by Jaguar strategists to be an ideal combination of power and flexibility. Humec soldiers are arranged into squads of twenty. Twenty of these squads form a single company and two companies form a division. Nahuatl warfare is typically a small, local affair, and rarely does an army comprise more than three divisions.

Squad leaders, typically the bravest man within a squad, are called achtopali, or "first man". Company commanders are called tecuhtli, or captain. Divisional commanders are called tecuhtzintli, or brigadier. Command posts are political appointments, often going to favored courtiers – or, in the case of devious Tlahtoani fighting minor skirmishes, to disfavored lords in the expectation they will fall in combat or disgrace themselves. The individual forces of most cities and High Houses follow this model as well.

Nahuatl warfare is different than the style fought by other societies. Rarely is it fought for territory: all land is the Tlahtoani's, and only the most blasphemous rebel would suggest otherwise by proclaiming a new state. Instead, the focus in Nahuatl warfare is to entrap the opposing army. Most campaigns are fought to encircle or maneuver the opponent to a position where his soldiers can be taken as captives to be sacrificed to sustain the power of the glorious sun god, Huitzlcaelel, in his eternal struggle against darkness. Indeed, the mark of a skilled Nahuatl warrior is not one who can kill countless enemies, but who can most easily disable his opponents and allow them to be taken prisoner.

The Nahuatl culture has developed many weapons that foreigners find unusual. Perhaps most famous of these is the atlatl, a sling-like weapon used to greatly enhance the power behind a thrown spear. The Nahuatl arsenal of ranged weapons includes more familiar weapons, such as obsidian-headed arrows, slings, and axes balanced for throwing. The most famous Nahuatl melee weapon is the macuahuitl, a kind of combined club-sword. The unadorned machuahuitl resembles a wooden sword, but when prepared for war, sharpened blades of obsidian are fitted into it, giving it great chopping power. As the unfortunate Elven explorer Panthelas Moonspring was to discover, a well-aimed strike from a machuahuitl can decapitate a horse in one swipe. Weapons fashioned completely of metal are rare, typically only found among the elite warriors of the Eagle House. Nahuatl armor is commonly made of wood, wicker, or cotton. The Eagle House has used their meteorite iron to fashion metal armor, and the Frog House has metal armor obtained from trade, but both items are relatively rare: and in Nahuatl's type of warfare, relying on stealth and maneuverability, of limited use.

Religion

Religion is one of the most important forces in Nahuatl life. The Tlahtoani is the supreme intermediary of affairs between Heaven and Earth, responsible for pleasing the gods.

While there are hundreds of Nahuatl gods, their primary patron is Huitzlcaelel, also known by his many epithets: Blue Lord of War, Western Harbinger, Eagle of the Sunset, and Omen-Giver. The Nahuatl creation story says that after the Goddess of the Earth had given the world form, she became pregnant with Huitzlcaelel. The moon and stars became jealous of her, and attempted to kill the god as a child; however, he summoned great serpents of fire out of the sun and defeated the armies of the moon and stars. The battle continues to rage across the heavens to this very day. Each rising of the sun is another victory over darkness. Huitzlcaelel's strength drains over time, and so the blood of sacrifices must be given him in order to sustain his struggle. In the capital city lies a great stone pyramid dedicated to the Blue Lord of War where daily sacrifices are made - typically animals, but the most prized sacrifices remain human. On the two equinoxes of the year, great bloodletting occurs in rituals in which thousands of human victims are slain.

Some other important gods in the Nahuatl pantheon are;

Teteo Inan: "Our Grandmother", "Serpent Lady", the Earth Goddess, patron of women who die in childbirth, fertility, rebirth. Depicted as a woman wearing a necklace of human hands, hearts, and skulls, and possessed of great rending claws, with which she digs graves.

Chicomecoatl: "Seventh Serpent", goddess of produce. At the end of summer, Chicomecoatl receives a sacrifice of a young girl, ritually decapitated. The blood of the girl is poured on a statue of Chicomecoatl, and her flayed skin is worn by the high priest of the cult. This is believed to bring a bountiful harvest throughout the land.

Anaxanalchiuhtlicue: The "Jade-Skirted" goddess of lakes and steams. Nahuatl warriors are ritually baptized in her name in the waters of Lake Anaxis.

Itzpzpalotl: The goddess of famines.

Mictlantecuhtle: The guardian and spirit guide of the dead.

Mixcoatl: The "cloud serpent" god of the hunt.

Ometotchtli: The "Two Rabbit" god of drunkenness. He leads the four hundred rabbit gods of drunkenness. Often, rabbits are given as sacrifices to Ometotchtli and then cooked in alcohol.

Tepeyomqui: "Jaguar of the Mountains" God of earthquakes, patron of jaguars.

Tezcatlcalpante: The "Smoking Mirror" god of night, temptation, sorcery, robbers, deceit, fate, rulership. His sobriquet comes from his ownership of a magical mirror that emits deadly smoke. Within the mirror, he can see everything and anything. It is believed that he gazes into his mirror for each child at the moment of conception and lays out its fate in the visions the mirror brings. A popular legend is that Tezcatlcalpante appears as a headless man with his chest and stomach split open, and is obligated to grant one wish to anyone brave enough to rip his avatar's heart out.

Shamanism

Traditionalist Nahuatl revere the gods and the six animal aspects: Jaguar, Eagle, Coyote, Snake, Frog, and Owl. It is believed that warriors and shamans in tune with these aspects can take on powerful abilities (more on this later). As the Nahuatl conception of good and evil is significantly different than many other nations, they have no equivalent of "paladins or "dark knights" among them.

Warlocks

In recent decades, however, a "heretical" spiritual movement has arisen. This movement reveres only the darker gods of the Nahuatl pantheon, and rejects the animal aspects in favor of demonic spirits. In common translation, this group is called the "warlocks" or "Fiend-Wearers".

Becoming a dedicated warlock is no easy affair. The first step is to find a coven, and it is considered to be a trial that separates the worthy from the unworthy. Warlock covens are typically located in areas far from civilization, though it is whispered that some also exist within the great cities of Nahuatl. Needless to say, the covens do not advertise their existence, and only a seeker's determination, strength, will, and insight can guide them. Many seekers offer prayers to the gods as well as individual demon spirits for guidance.

Once contact with a coven is made, the seeker is initiated into the arts of the cult. If the seeker is physically fit, he is made a warrior. New warriors are cloaked in the flayed skin of the coven's patron demon and his face painted with the blood of each member of the coven in an elaborate design. The initiate, if male, performs a ritual circumcision upon himself with an obsidian dagger, and offers the severed flesh to his demonic patron. If the demon finds the offering worthy, the ritual is complete and the petitioner is one of the coven. If the flesh is rejected, the petitioner's throat is cut and his kidneys are cut out and devoured by the coven.

As a result of their bonding with their fiend, all initiates gain the boon of slightly increased reflexes and skin as tough as leather. As they progress in their paths, the Warlock can gain demonic boons from their patron that allows them elements of the demon's power. Boons are not given lightly - an average Warlock earns only three in his entire life. The most faithful and notorious Warlocks, after a lifetime of service, might have acquired five.

Certain powerful Warlocks possess the greatest of demonic boons - the ability to become fully possessed by one of their demonic patrons, and assume the form and powers of the demon. This ability is very rare and not commonly used, and said to be even more taxing on the Warlock's sanity than the minor boons.

Magic

Arcane magic is almost unheard of within Nahuatl. It is believed that delving into the arcane weakens the connection between a family and the gods and spirits. While not expressly outlawed, few Tutec are willing to take that chance. The Humec, however, would no doubt leap at the chance to gain magical power – but few know it exists, fewer still know where to get it, fewer still can afford to travel to learn, and even fewer have the ultimate dedication it takes to begin the process of becoming a wizard.

Sorcery is utterly foreign to Nahuatl. No member of this society has ever been born with magical gifts.

While the Nahuatl people have a great respect for nature, there are no druids or traces of druidic magic among them.

Society and Peoples

"Warriors of Nahuatl! Glorious soldiers of Huitzlcaelel! Invincible fist of the Tlahtoani! Today, you march upon the people of Hacalpa, those vile blasphemers who would deny the will of the Blue Lord of War! May your weapons hold no faults, your arrows have true aim, your hearts know no fear. When the enemy's soldiers lay in our hands, their blood shall fuel the great struggle against eternal darkness. It is thus that we will enter the city not as conquerors, but as saviors - saviors of the very world itself!"

-Tlahtoani Ilhuitl II, known as the World-Conqueror, Battle Sermon of Hacalpa

At first glance, one might think Nahuatl a backward and barbaric country. Nothing could be further from the truth. Despite their apocolyptic, bloody religion and feudal politics, Nahuatli civilization has produced many marvels not seen in other parts of the world. The fifty-four major cities of the nation are united in a complex road system that conquers some of the most hostile terrain in the world. A complex network of irrigation has prevented famines. Nahuatli herbalists and doctors are among the most learned in the world, able to treat all manners of conditions. Even dwarven visitors have (grudgingly) admitted that Nahuatli stonework, including the famous step-pyramids of Aachu Kachu, "has a few good qualities to it".

The Tlahtoani, or priest-king, reigns as supreme authority. Below the Tlahtoani are the six Tutec tlahtoque, or High Houses. These noble houses are each named after a particular animal, which is seen as being the guiding spirit of the house's activities. The Houses are: Serpent, Eagle, Jaguar, Owl, Coyote, and Frog. Members of these noble houses are referred to as pipiltin, or Lords. Originally, the noble houses of Nahuatl were not hereditary and restricted, and if a Humec was sufficiently wealthy and well-connected, he might acquire Tutec status and join one of the High Houses. However, during the reign of the Tlahtoani Ceczuma nearly five hundred years ago, the Tlahtoani ruled that membership in the noble households was restricted only to those who had been born as a Tutec, and that those of Humec status could no longer advance to noble status.

Most Humecs are born into families of poor laborers and remain so their entire lives. They enjoy no rights to speak of, and while not bound to the land as a serf might be, economic conditions often prevent them from ranging very far from their sources of work and support. Humecs are seen as inferiors to the Tutecs: where Tutecs are industrious, fastidious, honorable, and devoted to the state, Humecs are lazy, greedy, dishonest, and self-interested. This dichotomy extends even to how Nahuatl discuss appearances: Humecs are short, darker skinned, with flatter noses, thicker lips, shorter, more wiry hair, whereas Tutecs are tall, lighter skinned, more regal noses, thinner lips, and with flowing, dark hair. To outside observers this is baffling, and most foreign visitors remark that they honestly cannot tell the difference at a glance.

The High Houses

Serpent

The Royal House of the Serpent is not a High House in the traditional sense, but instead is the web of patronage that surrounds the Tlahtoani. To carry out his will, the priest-king employs a multitude of heralds, messengers, and other agents. These men wear tabards bearing the image of the serpent, and swear personal oaths to the Tlahtoani, renouncing all of their former affiliations. Being accepted as a member of the Serpent House is one of the greatest honors a Tutec can receive in his life.

In addition to the mundane tasks of carrying messages throughout the Empire, the Tlahtoani's heralds also serve as his proxies in diplomatic endeavors and legal disputes between Tutec lords. This gives individuals within the Serpent House great power. Some Serpents perform their duties in a fair-minded and respected manner – most, however, use their position to extort other lords and expand their personal power as far as possible, knowing that only renegades would dare strike out at a man speaking with the voice of the Tlahtoani.

Eagle

The Splendid House of the Eagle is one of the most austere, conservative, and politically powerful of the noble houses. Known as the "Shield of the Tlahtoani," those born of the Eagle are masters of administration and politics. They can claim responsibility for many of the glories of Nahuatl civilization – Eagle has long been on the cutting edge of dress, court ritual, architecture, jewelcraft, painting, storytelling, poetry, music, and refinement. Their political power comes not only from their mastery of art and rich network of artisans and crafters, but also from a very personal connection to the Tlahtoani – out of fifty-eight Tlahtoanis in recorded history, only six have not had a mother from the Eagle House. Nahuatl myths surrounding the founding of their society suggest that the Eagle Spirit itself descended to the original founder of the House and infused itself into him, allowing him to be truly splendid.

The Eagle House has received a great boon from the gods. In the Arangothian year 183, a great meteor fell from the heavens and landed in the great Hanging Gardens maintained by the Eagle house. While there was some destruction of the property, it was discovered that this object from the heavens was a great source of a strong, resilient metal that has come to be called "immortal iron" – a metal relatively rare in Nahuatl. The Eagle immediately set to work fashioning arms and equipment from this iron – an act which the conservative Owl house viewed as an act of sacrilege. The meteorite is currently enshrined in the Eagle residence within the capital city, but enough material has been mined from it to equip the elite Eagle Guard.

A typical member of the Eagle house might be an artisan or artist, an administrator, a diplomat, or a member of the Eagle Guard. Typically confident and comfortable with being in a position of respect or command, most members of the Eagle House value cultural achievements and physical beauty – they strive to create and share the splendor of their civilization with the rest of the world. Many are tolerant of non-Nahuatl civilizations, but view them with the certainty that their civilization is the highest form of civic order in the world.

Jaguar

"Why should any man fear what Destiny has in store? Give me my father's sword, and I will march into the maw of death with a wild battle cry!"

The Warlike House of the Jaguar forms the bedrock of Nahuatl society. The Jaguar are known as the "Spear of the Tlahtoani", and those born of the Jaguar are masters of warfare. Trained for war from the time they can walk, members of the Jaguar are pitiless soldiers. The House of the Jaguar is one of the largest noble houses, and has produced more great generals and strategists than any other. Jaguar lords often excel in single combat, and have developed a martial philosophy widely copied throughout the Nahuatl world: as the goal in single combat is to disable your opponent so that he may be taken prisoner, so too is it the goal of warfare to disable a nation and take them into submission. This doctrine has led to a unique characteristic of Nahuatl war – a lack of long sieges and widespread destruction of property, and a long and storied history of mass battles.

The Jaguar have picked many fights with the other High Houses throughout history, and have few friends. However, the Eagle House in particular stimulates the wrath of the Jaguar. A typical Jaguar lord views his Eagle fellows as soft and weak, content to play at life and hide behind politics. The Jaguar reputation for ferocity and undisputed skill at arms keeps them in a position of prominence among the pecking order of the Nahuatl nobility.

Jaguar shamans are not uncommon, and typically deal with ancestral spirits and reincarnation, calling upon their animal's affinity with two worlds. In times of war, the Jaguar Warriors often form "special forces" units, specializing in infiltration and ambush.

Coyote

The Ingenious House of the Coyote is responsible for the flourishing state of Nahuatl technology and engineering. The rivers, jungles, deserts and mountains that comprise most of Nahuatl's territory are vast, dangerous, forbidding, and to outsiders seem like an impossible hurdle to overcome. But where other men have seen only difficulty, the Coyote see opportunity. The Coyote's inventors brought about such wonders as the immense irrigation system complete with artificial lakes as reservoirs, a system of carving roads into the mountains, a system of food preservation, advanced stonemasonry, ploughs, terracing, advances in medicine, and much more. Many Coyote are possessed of a great curiosity about the natural world and the laws that govern it, and see it as their calling to attempt to master it and improve life.

The Coyote House is an enigma in many ways. In addition to their scientific achievements, they also are the only High House that sponsors arcane magic. Those few Nahuatl who successfully begin their study of arcane magic are almost always approached by members of the Coyote, who offer them residence in Goyual, a fortress town hidden in the mountains. In Goyual, a thriving community of wizards exists, studying and crafting the magics of illusion and divination.

Owl

The Sapient House of the Owl is a brotherhood of shamans, and handle the spiritual tasks required to sustain the Empire. Owl shamans have the capability to imbue talismans with magical properties, and are famous as alchemists, creating potions and drugs.

The Owl special warriors are berserkers under the influence of Owl war drugs during battle and throw themselves wildly into enemy groups.

Frog

The Prosperous House of the Frog is the leading merchant power in Nahuatl, stemming from their mastery of river commerce. In addition, they've got seven sea warships – unlike other ships, they are powered not by wind or oars, but by giant sea serpents bound to the front of the vessel like a chariot and horses. In the event of combat (fairly rare – even the most hardened pirate might think twice at attacking a ship pulled by a huge sea serpent), the serpent's magic chains are loosened and it attacks the enemies of the Frog in a wild frenzy.

The shamans of the House of the Frog master communication with the spirits of air and water. Their warriors specialize in marine and amphibious assaults, including some who can lurk under river waters, breathing through reed tubes.

Language

Names

Examples of Nahuatl male names

Achcauhtli, Acolmixtli, Ahuiliztli, Amoxtli, Atl, Camaxtli, Chicahua, Chimalli, Chipahua, Citlalli, Cualli, Cuauhtemoc, Cuetlachtli, Eztli, Huemac, Huitzilihuitl, Huitzilin, Ilhicamina, Ilhuitl, Itztli, Milintica, Necalli, Nezahualcoyotl, Nezahualpilli, Nopaltzin, Tenoch, Tezcacoatl, Tlacelel, Tlazopilli, Xipilli, Xiuhcoatl,


Examples of Nahuatl female names

Citlalmina, Coaxoch, Cozamalotl, Coszcatl, Cuicatl, Ichtaca, Icnoyotl, Ihuicatl, Itotia, Ixtli, Malinalxochitl, Mecatl, Meztli, Nenetl, Nochtli, Ohtli, Patli, Quetzalxochitl, Tlalli, Tlachinolli, Toltecatl, Xipil, Xochitl, Yolotli, Yaotl

Pronunciation

Nahuatl provides no particular rule regarding surnames. Within the Tutec aristocracy, the name of the House is typically used. Hence, Eztli of the Coyote house would be known as "Eztli Coyotl". The poorer Humecs take surnames that reflect the village he is from or some other honorific or trait. Particularly large Humec families might distinguish their children by giving them an honorific based on their birth order.

If a word ends in –tl, only the T is pronounced.

If a word contains "hu", it is pronounced like the "w" in "water".

If a word contains "x", it is pronounced as the "sh" in "wash"

Thus, the word "cohuatl" would be pronounced as "cowat".

Modes of Address

Nahuatl politeness is to call adult men "pilli", or "gentleman". Adult women are referred to as "ciquapilli", or "lady". Old men are called colli, or "grandfather", and old women called "cihtli", or "grandmother". Hence, a man named "Atl" would be referred to as "Pilli Atl" when being spoken to, and a woman named Xipil would be called "Ciquapilli Xipil" when being addressed.