The definite article is EL. If there is no adjective modifying the noun, it precedes it: EL TOLOR, the Tollorian.
If there is an adjective modifying the noun, the article follows it: KU TOLOR-EL, the great Tollorian.
The word IL (he/she/it/that) is often used almost synonymously.
DE = “of”. Tolor de Rufol, “Tollorian of a hill.” ELDE = “of the” el Tolor elde Rufol, “the Tollorian of the hill.” [Note: commonly “elde” is further contracted to EDE]. DEK = “to”. [Note: this word often loses its final K in contractions]. DEKEL = “to the”. [usually contracted to DEL]. This word is also used to show the indirect object of intransitive verbs. VEN = “into”. ELVEN = “into the”.
- I. [bi] [dim]
- you. [ni] [din]
- he/she/it. il del
- We. [me] [-men], bamen
- you pl. [ne] -nel, [banel]
- They. ar -lem, [balem]
Notes on the possessive pronouns
The first, second and third persons are generally all shown in polite speech by the use of the pronoun IL, and the words for I (bi) and you (ni) are hardly ever used. The possessive form of this is the word DEL, which comes before the word being modified. The first person plural possessive is shown by the suffix -MEN. Thus: GRAG, “witness,” GRAGMEN, “our witness.” The third person plural possessive is shown by the suffix -LEM. Thus: GRAGLEM, “their witness.” The second person plural possessive takes the suffix -NEL. Thus: GRAGNEL, “your witness.” Or GECHARNEL, “your having come.” However, if the word being modified is in the plural, these possessives form a new word placed after the original noun, BA- plus the possessive suffix: for example, MALEMI BAMEN, my children; DEFFI BALEM, their wedding ceremonies, MALEMI BANEL, your children.
ARO = take, takes; or “the act of taking.”
The word immediately after a verb is usually taken to be its direct object: thus, ARO ASMODEE, “the taking of Asmodee,” based on the verb ARO, to take. However, when the verb is intransitive, having no direct object, the subject may be placed after the verb: GANAN CHARLES, “Charles decides.”
- Past tense of verbs: -ar. AROAR, took.
- Interrogative particle: -d. AROD, does (it) take? AROARD, did (it) take?
- Imperative particle: -(e)f. AROF, take (it); may (it) take!
- Infinitive. EK. EK ARO = to take.
- Participles: tik- : TIKARO = the one who is taken.
MENARO = the one who takes.
- Other: -n. ARON = upon taking, upon (it) being taken.
-(e)l. AROL = “takes it” -- marks a transitive verb as intransitive.
RUFOL = hill. Definite: el. EL RUFOL. The hill. Possessive: de, elde. RUFOL DE ELUR, “hill of an Elur”, or RUFOL ELDE ELUR, “hill of the Elur.” However, it should be noted that this word can be omitted: RUFOL ELUR still means “hill of an Elur” by virtue of the word order. Plural: -i. RUFOLI, “hills”
The plural of nouns is shown by the ending -I, as in MALEMI, children, from MALEM, child. (As in the phrase MALEMI’K = malemi ek, children of the gods), or DEFFI, wedding ceremonies, from DEFF (an archaic term no longer in use), or KEPI, thanks, from KEP (an individual act of thanking).
Locative: -(o)n. EL RUFOLON, “on, at the hill.” EL RUFOLIN, “on the hills.”
The ending -EN forms adverbs meaning “at/in/upon”: thus GRENGEN, here and now, from GRENG (this place, this time). GRAGEN, upon the witness of, from GRAG (witness). SUFLINKEN, in the presence (of), from SUFLINK (presence). DEFFIN, at the time of the wedding ceremonies, from DEFFI (wedding ceremonies). KEPIN, upon thanks, from KEPI (thanks).
Other: te- TERUFOL = in the jurisdiction or judgment of the hill.
ne- NERUFOL = in league, in harmony with the hill.
- al. (v) to deign.
- ard. (v) to possess.
- aro. (v) to take.
- cilc (n) life.
- cluxicoun. (n) true love.
- deffi (plural n). wedding festivities.
- dek. (v) to be.
- dermot. (n) estate.
- ee. (v) to hear.
- ek. forms the infinitive of verbs.
- Ek. (n) the Gods.
- ere-ok. (n) a dead person.
- faciel. (v) singularity.
- feac. (v) to embrace someone.
- feacel. (v) to embrace [+ dek]; an embracing.
- il. (v) to rise.
- kep. (v) to thank someone, [for something = + dek].
- ku. (adj) big.
- ga-olor. (n) midst.
- gar. (adj) small.
- gech. (v) to come.
- gharn. (n) attack.
- gil. (v) to prostrate oneself, to kneel
- grag (n) witness.
- greng (n) this place, this time.
- griel. (adv) again.
- grod. (n) battlefield
- gunan (v) to decide [+ dek]
- lo (v) to be extended, to go, protrude forth
- majaek. -- “goat-bearing tree”: meaning the Gods who are the center of all things.
- mak. (adj) glorious.
- malem. (n) child.
- malte. (n) freedom.
- nee (v) to fall.
- nok (n) weapon.
- plac (n). death.
- quim (n). heaven.
- suflink (n). presence.
- sva-rik (n) peace.
- ven. (prep.) into
- yah. (n) monkey, ape.
ALEF EK ARO IL NEK IL TOLLOR EREOK VEN IL MAK GAOLOR SVARIK IL QUIMEN.
Deign to take, in the mercy of the gods, the Tollor(ian) who hath died into the glorious midst of peace in the heavenly abode.
ARO CILCLEM GRODON PLACIL ARO.
[...] takes their life upon a battlefield, death itself takes them.
i.e. Their life is taken upon a battlefield: ‘tis death itself which takes them!
TIKARO EL ILEF GRIEL ARO TEK MENEE AR EEF. AL EK....
May the taken rise again, [we] take, in the justice of the gods, the fallen: let them hear! [We] deign that....